1) According to the path-goal theory, supportive leadership contributes most to subordinate satisfaction and motivation when the task is

important and meaningful

complex and variable

tedious and stressful

interesting and enjoyable

2) What is a facilitating condition according to the social contagion theory of charismatic leadership?

Complex, significant tasks

Crisis or disenchantment

Weak, dependent followers

Exemplary behavior by a role model

3) What is the most common indicator of personal integrity in the theories of ethical leadership?

Leader values are consistent with follower values.

Leader behavior is consistent with follower values.

Leader behavior is consistent with the leader’s espoused values.

The leader’s espoused values are consistent with cultural norms.

4) What is the most likely benefit from using participation in decision making?

The decision will be made more quickly.

The quality of the decision will be better.

There will be more decision acceptance by participants.

There will be greater agreement among the participants.

5) Which decision procedure combines participation with leader control over the final decision?

Decision made by a majority vote of group members

Delegation to the most qualified member of the group

Consensus decision by all members of the group

Consultation with individuals in the group

6) What is the most appropriate strategy for a leader when there is a decision that involves a conflict among the interests of different stakeholders?

Help the weaker party get what it needs

Suggest an equal division of the benefits

Help the parties find an integrative solution

Play the stakeholders off against each other

7) One of the major determinants of how and why an individual initiates and sustains certain behaviors is based on

cause and effect

action and reaction

sensation and perception

process and governance

8) Perception based on what someone can see, hear, smell, and so forth is called

psychological perception

physiological perception

isometric perception

cultural and environmental perceptions

9) Perception based on interactions among broad socio cultural factors is called

psychological perception

physiological perception

isometric perception

cultural and environmental perceptions

10) The theory that leads managers to believe that all employees are inherently lazy, lacking desire and ambition is

Theory A

Theory X

Theory Y

Theory Z

11) The theory that leads managers to more reality testing around tasks, time, pressures, and so forth, is known as

Theory A

Theory X

Theory Y

Theory Z

12) The idea of a hierarchy of needs that includes physiological, security, social, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs was formulated by:





13) What pace and sequencing of desired changes has received research support?

Rapid introduction of changes throughout the organization.

Rapid introduction of changes to different parts of the organization.

Gradual introduction of change throughout the organization.

Gradual introduction of change to different parts of the organization.

14) Which is most likely to be effective for implementing major change?

Make followers feel responsible for failure of the old strategy.

Provide opportunities to experience early success in implementing change.

Emphasize the obstacles so followers will not become complacent.

Maintain control over sensitive information about new problems.

15) Which action would be considered a guideline for implementing change?

Resist making dramatic, symbolic changes that affect work.

Build a broad coalition to support the change.

Avoid conveying urgency regarding the need for change.

Implement change rapidly across the organization.

16) The levels of organization change include

cultural layer

value layer

architecture layer

substructure layer

17) The physical/technical layer is:

less concrete and harder to change.

more concrete and easier to change.

less concrete and easier to change.

more concrete and harder to change.

18) Organizational culture is best described as

the organization’s espoused values and objectives

member perception of the primary mission of the organization

basic values and beliefs shared by members of the organization

member loyalty and commitment to the organization

19) Which approach to influence culture would be classified as a direct action by a leader?

Design of management systems and programs

Criteria for rewards and personnel decisions

Reaction to crises

Design of structure and facilities

20) Which two kinds of power have been found to be related most strongly to leader effectiveness in motivating subordinates?

Expert and referent power

Reward and referent power

Expert and legitimate power

Reward and expert power

21) Control over information is likely to give a manager power over


subordinates and peers

peers and superiors

peers, superiors, and subordinates

22) The status and influence accorded an emergent leader depends primarily on

the leader’s social popularity among the members

the leader’s control over rewards desired by group members

the leader’s seniority among group members

the leader’s demonstrated competence and loyalty

23) Referent power is most likely to result in which type of influence process?


Personal identification

Instrumental compliance

Collective identification

24) What statement about influence objectives is most accurate?

Attempts to change the way the work is done occur most often with peers.

Attempts to get a person to do a task better or faster occur most often with subordinates.

Attempts to obtain resources and political support occur most often with peers.

Attempts to obtain personal benefits occur most often with subordinates.

25) Which influence tactic would most likely be used laterally as compared to downward?

Personal appeals

Inspirational appeals


Rational persuasion

26) Resistance by a subordinate to a change proposed by the boss is best viewed as

a deviant reaction by someone preoccupied with self-interest

a situation that requires the use of power to overcome resistance

a source of energy that can be redirected to improve change

an indication of systems dynamics that will nullify any change

27) What is the best way for a CEO to deal with managers in key positions who continue to resist a major change?

Try to isolate them and work around them.

Replace them with people who will support the change.

Ignore them and hope they will come to see why the change was necessary.

Keep increasing the pressure on them to support the change.

28) At which stage of growth is it usually most difficult to change an organization’s culture?

New organization

Mature organization

Developing organization

Declining organization

29) Lewin’s three-step change framework consists of these phases

awakening, moving, reawakening

engaging, disengaging, reengaging

unfreezing, awakening, freezing

unfreezing, moving, refreezing

30) For those individuals with lower levels of organizational security, the impact of change has been equated to a process similar to