Question 1. Question : TCO#2: A research approach that asks participants to describe their recent and lifetime criminal activity is called _____. field observation cross-sectional research meta-analysis self-reported study Question 2. Question : TCO#2: If criminologists want to see the direct effect of one factor or variable on another factor or variable, they conduct _____. experimental research aggregate data research cohort research survey research Question 3. Question : TCO#2: What is known about the trend in property crime rates? Like the violent crime rate, the property crime rate has increased slightly. Unlike the violent crime rate, the property crime rate has continued to fall. The violent crime rate and property crime rate have remained equally stable. The violent crime rate has decreased, while the property crime rate has increased. Question 4. Question : TCO#2: According to Wolfgang, Figlio, and Sellin’s cohort study, what percentage of chronic offenders was responsible for a significant proportion of all serious crime? 12 percent 15 percent 6 percent 25 percent Question 5. Question : TCO#2: The relationship between class and crime is an important one for criminological theory. The weight of recent evidence seems to suggest that serious official crime is more prevalent _____. across both the middle and lower class among the middle class among the upper class among the lower class Question 6. Question : TCO#1: ____________ is an academic discipline that makes use of the scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior. Sociology Criminal Justice Criminology Psychology Question 7. Question : TCO#1: The theory that suggests people have free will to choose a criminal career or unlawful solutions to meet their needs or settle their problems is _____. classical theory conflict theory biosocial theory Marxist theory Question 8. Question : TCO#1: The Chicago School was developed by a group of sociologists at _____. the Chicago Institute of Criminology the University of Illinois Illinois State University the University of Chicago Question 9. Question : TCO#: 1 Common law was developed after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 through the verdicts of ________ who used local customs and rules of conduct as guides for decision-making. juries popes kings royal judges Question 10. Question : TCO#1: The intent to commit the criminal act is known as _____. mens rea actus reus mala in se mala prohibitum Question 11. Question : TCO#3: Referring to the relationship between marital status and vicimization, who is least likely to become a crime victim? Someone who is married Someone who has never married Someone who is divorced Someone who is a widow or widower Question 12. Question : TCO#3: One’s chances of victimization are reduced by _____. staying single staying out of public places moving to the city being out and about after 10 p.m. Question 13. Question : TCO#3: When victims act provocatively, use threats or fighting words, or even attack first, this is known as _____. passive precipitation active precipitation aggressive precipitation reactive precipitation Question 14. Question : TCO#3: In routine activities theory, a large number of unemployed teenagers would be an example of _____. suitable targets capable guardians protective sentinels motivated offenders Question 15. Question : TCO#3: According to routine activities theory, homes that contained easily salable objects such as laptop computers, stereos, and television sets would be classified as _____. hot targets hot spots suitable targets chronic spots Question 16. Question : TCO#4: Beccaria believed that criminals choose to commit crime and that their choices could be controlled by _____. fear of punishment improving economic conditions selective incapacitation situational crime prevention Question 17. Question : TCO#4: While outwardly considered the most irrational of offenders, serial murders are considered rational because: they tend to have high IQs. they pick their targets with care. they elude arrest for months, and sometimes for years. they are rarely, in actuality, psychologically disturbed. Question 18. Question : TCO#4: According to _____________, crime rates are influenced and controlled by the threat of punishment. general deterrence specific deterrence diffusion of benefits crime displacement Question 19. Question : TCO#4: The Kansas City, Missouri police department’s study of patrol effectiveness, convinced criminologists that: the mere presence of patrol officers on the street did not have a deterrent effect. doubling the amount of patrol officers on the street had a deterrent effect. The mere presence of patrol officers on the street had a deterrent effect, but only in high crime areas. decreasing the amount of patrol officers on the street increased crime. Question 20. Question : TCO#4: The philosophy of justice that asserts that those who violate the rights of others deserve to be punished is known as _____. specific deterrence just desert revenge retribution Question 21. Question : TCO#4: The belief that no serious consideration should be given to biological factors when attempting to understand human nature is known as _____. choice theory biophobia nature theory nurture theory Question 22. Question : TCO#4: A disorder in which a child shows a developmentally inappropriate lack of attention and an excess of impulsivity is known as _____. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder oppositional defiance disorder impulse dysfunctional disorder conduct disorder Question 23. Question : TCO#4: A mental state, labeled ________________ is found in youngsters whose personalities require them to seek immediate gratification, to consider their own needs more important than others, and to satisfy instinctive urges without considering right and wrong. deferred delinquency emergent delinquency latent delinquency delayed delinquency Question 24. Question : TCO#4: Social learning theory holds that people learn to be aggressive through their life experiences. Which of these is not a source of this behavior modeling process? Environmental experiences Family interaction Mass media Religious affiliation Question 25. Question : TCO#4: According to recent media research by Bushman and Anderson violent media has __________ impact on people with preexisting tendency toward crime and violence. no short-term an immediate a time-delayed Question 26. Question : TCO#4: A socially disorganized area is one in which the ______________ have broken down and can no long carry out their expected or stated functions. institutions of social control institutions of social service institutions of federal government global institutions Question 27. Question : TCO#4: Social disorganization theory was developed by the work of two Chicago sociologists _____. Martin and Gordon Winfree and Mays Sutherland and Durkheim McKay and Shaw Question 28. Question : TCO#4: A renewal stage in which obsolete housing is replaced and upgraded is known as _____. gentrification turnover transition revitalization Question 29. Question : TCO#4: When individuals embrace conventional social goals and have the means at their disposal to attain them, this is known as _____. rebellion ritualism innovation conformity Question 30. Question : TCO#4: According to Miller’s focal concern theory, which of the following is not identified as a lower class focal concern? Excitement Trouble Achievement Smartness Question 31. Question : TCO#4: Social learning theory suggests that crime is a/an ________ behavior. chronic learned innate isolated Question 32. Question : TCO#4: The principle that criminal techniques are learned is part of _____. differential association theory labeling theory social reaction theory differential reinforcement theory Question 33. Question : TCO#4: The view that becoming a criminal is a learning process in which potential delinquents master skills that enable them to counterbalance conventional values and drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior is known as _____. social reaction theory differential association theory differential reinforcement theory neutralization theory Question 34. Question : TCO#4: Which one is not an element of the social bond? Attachment Commitment Involvement Achievement Question 35. Question : TCO#4: This occurs when norm violations or crimes have very little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotten. Stigma Anomie Primary deviance Secondary deviance Question 36. Question : TCO#4: According to the instrumental theorists, unmasking the true purpose of law and justice is termed to _____. destigmatize demystify discredit dishonor Question 37. Question : TCO#4: The branch of conflict theory that focuses upon the emergence of a strict “law and order” philosophy and that believes street criminals prey on the poor and disenfranchised, thus making the poor doubly abused, first by the capitalist system and then by members of their own class is known as _____. power-control theory left realism critical realism peacemaking theory Question 38. Question : TCO#4: According to the instrumental view of critical criminology, the poor may or may not commit more crimes than the rich, but _____. their crime are less visible they are arrested and punished less often their crimes are more serious in nature they are arrested and punished more often Question 39. Question : TCO#4: Most balanced and restorative justice programs are located within _____. the locality’s probation system the locality’s juvenile justice system the locality’s adult criminal justice system the locality’s social work system Question 40. Question : TCO#4: From a Marxist perspective, the people who perform the actual work are called _____. the underclass the chattering class the bourgeoisie the proletariat