The abstract is a 150-250 word summary of your Research Paper, and it should be written only after you have
finished writing the entire paper because how your abstract is worded largely depends on the development of your
paper. Your abstract should be accurate, self-contained, concise and specific, non-evaluative, coherent, and readable. Your abstract may be modeled after the theoretical paper model or empirical study model. For
information or an example of an abstract, see p. 12 of The CSU APA Guide (6th edition) and p. 511 of Strategies for
Writing Successful Research Papers. Note that the abstract presented references MLA, but yours should be in
APA style. The abstract should be the second page in the paper, after the cover page, and the abstract should be
on its own page. The text of the paper itself should begin on page 3. Your abstract must meet the following
• Be 150-250 words
• Be located on the second page of your final draft
• Have a heading of Abstract that is centered at the top of the page.
Review of literature:
The review of literature should be a smooth transition from the introduction of your paper and should present a controlled summary of the conversation surrounding your topic.
5. Body paragraphs:
Each paragraph of the body of your Research Paper should be a cohesive unit. It should be tight, but developed. It
should serve a function, and its purpose should always be to bolster the thesis. Therefore, you should use the
following order for each paragraph in the body.
a. Topic sentence: This sentence summarizes the entire paragraph in one strong, well-written sentence, and it directly supports the thesis statement.
b. Explanation of topic sentence (1-2 sentences): Often times there is more to be said about the topic sentence, more explanation that is necessary in order for it to be a clear idea, so there are usually a few sentences that follow the topic sentence that explicate the idea more for the reader. These sentences not only “unpack” the topic sentence, but they also anticipate the evidence that will be used to support the topic sentence, usually indirectly.
c. Introduction to evidence (1-2 sentences): No piece of evidence (quotation, example, paraphrase, etc.) should be dropped into a paragraph without first introducing it. An introduction might include the title of the source, the author, and/or a short description of the source/author’s credentials. In this way, no evidence is presented without a context because it is this context that makes the evidence meaningful.
d. Evidence: The evidence that you present backs up your topic sentence, and by extension, supports your
thesis statement. The evidence that you supply can be a number of things: a quotation from a source; a
reasonable, illustrative example; a statistic; commentary from an interview; etc.
e. Explanation of evidence: No piece of evidence stands on its own or is convincing on its own. Although it may seem to draw a direct line to your topic sentence to support it, often the reader needs you to make the connection between the two. Further, the general rule is that for each sentence of quoted material, your explanation should be just as long, so if you include a block quotation, the block quotation should be met with an equally long explanation.
f. Transition (1-2 sentences): Transitions are essential for research papers because body paragraphs, especially, are written as units, and it is the transitions that allow for these units to be linked together.
Your conclusion should pull together your entire paper. Do not consider the conclusion a summary of your paper; your abstract is the summary of your paper. Instead, your conclusion is your opportunity to suggest what might be done with your findings. A good conclusion will restate the thesis, place a judgment on the issue discussed, discuss the implications of your findings, issue a directive or call to action to the reader, and close out the paper with a strong final thought. However, depending upon your topic and your treatment of that topic, the conclusion may take different forms. Your conclusion for this paper must be at least 150 words. If the conclusion is less than the word count, it is likely you have not fully developed your conclusion, and this lack of development can severely
impact your grade for this assignment. For an example and explicit instructions on how to write a conclusion, see
order number 81211792 is the 2nd draft
order number 8121180 is the 3rd draft
please use same references to have a cohesive reference page
also to use the outline paper given to you before to have a cohesion of papers