You should use peer feedback you have received on your microteaching activity in writing your lesson reflection(please see the uploaded documents).
You can write about any changes you made to your teaching between your practice and your final teaching session.
Question for lesson reflection
Your lesson reflection should be written in paragraph form, answering the question below.
Critically reflect on your microteaching session, drawing on your knowledge of learning and teaching principles developed in the course.
You must include in-text referencing for all sources and a reference list.
Some tips on writing your lesson reflection
Think about your lesson reflection BEFORE and DURING your microteaching session, not just after it!
Use your peer feedback to help you in writing your reflection.
Review the 5 Rs of reflection in the course notes
SOME POINTS TO CONSIDER IN YOUR LESSON REFLECTION
The lesson reflection question is:
Critically reflect on your microteaching session, drawing on your knowledge of learning and teaching principles developed in the course
Consider these points in your reflection:
What did students do during your teaching activity?
What were your aims in having them do this?
What level of learning behaviour did they engage in?
What did you do with what students did? How did this help students build their understanding of the topic?
Microteaching (Task 2) LESSON PLAN
- What is the unit code and unit title for the 100 level undergraduate unit you have chosen?
ECON110 Macroeconomic Principles
- Identify a topic from this 100 level unit that will be the basis of your group activity.
Measuring Macroeconomic Performance-GDP
- State the aim/s of your activity.
This activity will enable the students to define GDP and explain the components that contribute to GDP. The students will be able to calculate GDP from given values of consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports. They will be able to relate factors of overall well being of the country to its GDP.
- Write 1 learning outcome based on factual knowledge for your activity.
At the end of this activity students will be able to define GDP and recognize the four components that make up the GDP -consumption (C), investment (I), government purchases (G), and net exports (NX).
- Write 1-2 learning outcomes based on conceptual or procedural knowledge for your activity.
At the end of this activity students will be able to distinguish the difference between wellbeing and GDP.
At the end of this activity students will be able to classify and give examples of the components contributing to the GDP
- Describe in detail what you and the students will do throughout the activity.
|Time in minutes||
WHAT YOU WILL DO AT EACH
STAGE OF THE ACTIVITY
WHAT THE STUDENTS WILL DO AT EACH STAGE OF THE ACTIVITY
|1) Introduction of GDP and the factors measured to compute GDP. Using multimedia slide, explain to the students: How does economy affects our lives? What is GDP? Why and how is GDP an indicator of economy of country? Define consumption (C), investment (I), government purchases (G), and net exports (NX).
Explain GDP fluctuations both in short term and long term. Make it interesting by telling short summary tussle between labour and capitalists, and of history of Marxism/communism.
2) Introduce the method of Calculation of GDP-expenditure method – will be explained to students with examples from multimedia slides. Students will then be asked to take out blank work sheets and categorize a list of expenditures and then calculate GDP
3) Students will be told the difference between wellbeing and GDP. Establish relationship between GDP and overall wellbeing of country by relating the GDP to availability of goods and services, and health and education.
4) Lesson Closure:
Summarize the lecture and ask for any questions. Ask if anyone wants to come up to the dais and reflect upon present economic conditions of country and how can the GDP be improved? Leave the class with this interesting question.
|This section is more teacher-centric in order to introduce the concept of GDP and its measurement. There is greater use of multimedia in this section to attract the students’ attention and keep them focused.
Students should clearly understand the each component of GDP.
Students are allowed to raise any questions in relation to GDP.
Students will note down formula for calculating GDP and each of the component of GDP. Students will be given a list of expenditures and need to categorize them in order to calculate GDP by expenditure method. Invite students to show their categorization answers and calculation results.
This section again is more teacher-centric. Students will be engaged through questions relating to wellbeing. What do they think wellbeing is? Does money bring happiness? This is a kind of reflection, which makes students understand the concept of GDP in broader sense.
Students will be asked questions related to GDP and kinds of measurements covered in lecture. To clear any misconception and think upon country’s GDP and try to come up with suggestions to improve the economy.
7. Describe the strategies you will use to engage students during the activity
The first strategy is that I will make it interesting by telling short summary story between labour and capitalists, and of history of Marxism/communism to my students. By telling short story, students will be attracted to it and begin to care about what I am teaching and what they are learning. Storytelling is always a great method to motivate students to learn.
The second strategy is that I will connect the concept of GDP with daily life. This is, if GDP increases which means the living standard becomes better. As everyone wants to live a better life, students will want to know more about the concept of GDP and how to increase GDP.
The third strategy is that I have made questions for the students to solve. Through active engagement—calculations, understanding concepts, solving problems etc, students will fully understand what they are learning not just theoretically but also practically.
The forth strategy is that I will relate GDP to social issues and leave a few open questions for students to do further research themselves. This makes students to reflect in a broader sense, making them not only to further research on this topic but also have their own opinions on the topic. Students will automatically engage in this topic by doing their own research.
8.Choose three principles of good teaching (see FBE204 course notes) and explain how you have incorporated these in planning your activity.
The first principle I have chosen is number 3 in the course notes, which is focused on making learning relevant to students. This particular topic – that of measuring GDP – lends itself readily to this principle, because using ‘real world’ examples make learning relevant to the students not only in their present, but also in their future, lives.
The second principle I will incorporate is number 5. This principle relates to promoting active rather than passive learning, by engaging students to participate directly in the lesson rather than simply being on the receiving end of imparted knowledge. This will be achieved by including opportunities for whole class discussion, incorporating ‘question and answer’ sessions with the teacher, and other strategies. One such strategy I plan to use is ‘think-pair-share’, which is a recognised active learning strategy where learners think for a specified time (usually 1 or 2 minutes), discuss their ideas with a partner, and then share them as part of a class discussion. This activity has been shown to be effective across a wide age range, including higher education. It has also been found to be effective when working with large classes (Kothiyal, et al., 2013).
The third principle I will incorporate is number 7 which relates to student motivation, encouragement and enthusiasm. This will be achieved using a variety of strategies including fast-paced teaching, use of graphics, video clips and other media, encouragement of higher-order thinking skills and prompt, constructive feedback on tasks.
9.List any inclusive teaching strategies that you will use to address challenges presented by the diversity of your group.
I will adapt the lesson material to reflect the social and cultural makeup of the group. This could be done by considering GDP in different countries, or by discussing the contribution that different groups in society make towards GDP. I will be aware of any potential cultural or social sensitivities; for example, social groups who may feel that they have not benefitted fairly from government spending. Rather than avoiding these areas, I will plan to discuss them in an open and sensitive manner.
Resources will be designed to be accessible to any students who have special educational needs or disabilities. For example, print and on-screen resources may need to have large print if there are visually impaired students, or be printed on a specific colour background for dyslexic students. At the start of the lesson, I will activate students’ prior knowledge of key concepts; in particular, that of aggregate output. This lesson will incorporate a threshold concept, that of how societies make choices with limited resources; by thinking about different points of view, and breaking out of the idea that these choices are predetermined, students will be able to develop more abstract and higher-order thinking skills (Meyer & Land, 2003).
10.Give some examples of effective questions that you will use during your activity and explain why you have chosen these questions.
What is aggregate output and why is it important to be able to measure it?
This question will activate the students’ necessary prior knowledge for the lesson.
Why has Australia’s GDP shown an overall increase since 1901?
Would you expect this trend to continue, and why?
In the short term, why does GDP show downturns as well as growth?
These questions will encourage students to think about information shown on graphs and how it should be interpreted, drawing their attention to the fact that short term trends may be different to long-term ones.
In the equation, why are these particular factors used?
Are there any factors that you might have expected to be considered? If so, why so you think they have not been included?
Why are government payments to retirees not included as part of government spending?
These questions will encourage students to think beyond the equation as a simple mathematical formula, and to consider in more depth the choices that underlie it.
What drawbacks might there be to using GDP as a measure of aggregate output?
Are there any important factors which GDP does not consider?
Again, these questions are aimed at getting students to think of GDP as more than a simple mathematical concept and to consider its meaning in the ‘real’ world.
How might the GDP of one country influence that of another?
What effect does the GDP of an individual country have on the global economy?
Is it true to say that the GDP of one country may depend on that of others?
These questions will encourage students to think of GDP in worldwide terms and to consider whether it is possible, economically speaking, for one country to stand alone, or whether the GDP of a country is always linked with those of others.
11.Describe the teaching resource that you have designed for your activity, including any design choices you have made to increase the effectiveness of your teaching resource (e.g. choices about layout, amount of content).
The resource I have designed is a short PowerPoint presentation which has been made as short and clear as possible. The content of each slide has been kept to a minimum, showing key information only. A large size font has been used to make the slides easy to read. The lesson includes a class activity to encourage student participation and discussion so that they are active rather than passive learners. It incorporates the principals of good teaching by orienting learning towards students’ future needs (the ability to calculate and interpret GDP) and making learning relevant by using real, current examples – in this case, by looking at the changes in the GDP of Australia since 1901. The resource provides opportunities for active learning and engagement through discussion and direct participation in specific activities. It also enables students to receive prompt feedback and to self-assess their work. The resource provides opportunities for discussion, for example, by considering why certain factors are included in calculating GDP while others are not.
12.What difficulties do you anticipate during your microteaching session and how will you address these?
I anticipate that some students may have forgotten, or not understood in the first place, the concept of aggregate output. Therefore, I will begin the session with a short recap. I will ensure that all students understand this concept and therefore are able to progress on to calculating GDP. Some students may have poor maths skills, and therefore calculators will be provided for this session.
The layout of the room must ensure that all students can see the slides of the PowerPoint presentation. It must also be laid out in such a way as to facilitate group discussion.
Another potential problem that may occur is that during questioning, either no students respond or the same students are always the ones to volunteer answers. This may lead to some students becoming passive learners and simply sitting back and waiting for others to volunteer the answers. I will address this by using a random name generator, which will mean that all students will be aware that they may be called upon to provide an answer at any given time. This should help maintain students’ focus and participation in the lesson.
Kothiyal, A., Majumdar, R., Murthy, S. & Iyer, S., 2013. Effect of think-pair-share in a large CS1 class: 83% sustained engagement. Proceedings of the ninth annual international ACM conference on International computing education research, pp. 137-144.
Krathwohl, D. R., 2010. A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory into Practice, 42(4), pp. 212-218.
Meyer, J. & Land, R., 2003. Threshold Concepts and Troublesome Knowledge: Linkages to Ways of Thinking and Practising within the Disciplines, Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.