Please read this essay plan after doing this essay ,this essay plan was good but not really related with global politics, could you using this same sources to doing this essay and writing something related with this .
The Global Economy and Globalisation
Essay plan and Anointed Bibliography
Economic globalisation has become an exceedingly disputed issue with its supporters arguing that it promotes economic growth, creates employment and, eventually, human development. Nevertheless, the critics argue over its propagation of imperialism and lack of protectionist of local employment. In most developed countries like Australia, offshoring has been seen as a threat to employment for the locals and a profit-making tool for corporates. This essay will examine the politics of economic globalisation with regard to offshoring. It will focus on the current globalisation offshoring/global sourcing problem and its effect on local jobs. This study’s proposed research question is: Has globalisation made local jobs vulnerable to offshoring?
Offshoring is a major threat to local employment and thus, it is important to study its dynamics. Previous research has concentrated more on the globalisation effect of job loss as a result of migration and movement of human labour, neglecting the role of offshoring. Moreover, offshoring is a new concept and has just gained momentum in the 21st century hence a need to understand the theoretical and actual developments surrounding the issue. This study is therefore significant because it will not only build on new literature on globalisation effect of offshoring on service and white-collar jobs, but also provide a conceptual framework for future research. The evidence produced will be useful in decision and policy making for policy makers, governments as well as corporates who practice out-contracting and offshoring of services.
This paper is structured as follows. It will have an introduction section defining the major terms, trends, types and main principles of offshoring. The second section will constitute of an historical overview of the developments in the Australian domestic and offshore outsourcing of products and services including policy reforms and two case studies (one on private sector, and the other on public sector). Statistics on Australian offshoring from both the public and private sector will be presented and compared with those from other countries. The third part will be a discussion that will analyse the implications of the developed data on local employment, specifically white collar jobs and services. The last section will be a conclusion that will summarise the main ideas and make recommendations. The conclusion will also make a final argument on the need for protectionist policy reforms against outsourcing as a means of preserving conventional workforce. The main sources are listed below.
1. Beaumont, Nicholas and Amrik Sohal. “Outsourcing in Australia”. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 24.7 (2004): 668-700.
This article presents outsourcing survey data collected in 2002 in Australia. The journal article examines the reasons and various factors that are considered when making outsourcing decisions. The report says that many employees were against outsourcing and viewed it as a globalism approach because it leads to the depression of their wages, undermines employees’ rights and makes other workers loss their employment. The data findings reported in this journal article is very important for my study because it provides the Australian outsourcing context as well statistics on outsourcing in Australia. The study also informs and supports my final argument against outsourcing.
2. Carroll, Archie and Ann Buchholtz. “Business and community stakeholders”. In Business and Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management, pp. 499-511. Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2011.
In this book chapter, the concept and ethical issues of globalisation, and the arguments for and against globalisation are analysed. Carroll and Buchholtz also presents a balanced view of job loss and offshoring, as well as an historical background of offshoring. The chapter also provides some case studies and data on what different professionals earn in different countries, and which professions are mostly outsourced. Statistics on the number of jobs lost are also provided. The chapter also addresses the decision making process regarding offshoring and provides a guideline for corporates to follow when making those decisions. The chapter concludes that, before an organization makes the decision to outsource for a product or service, it should first look for other locally available resources and also advices the management against using offshore outsourcing as a wage or price exploitation mechanism against their employees. This arguments and discussion are very useful for my research as they address the key issues I will be arguing, and will that act as my supporting evidence.
3. Fairbrother, Peter, Michael Paddon, and Julian Teicher. Privatisation, Globalisation, and Labour: Studies from Australia. Leichhardt: The Federal Press, 2002.
In this book, the magnitude of Australian privatising and corporatizing since 1980 is examined. The book also explores the impact of outsourcing on industrial, labour and management relations. The authors argue that, while corporates make profits from offshoring, its effects is highly felt by employees and labour unions because it creates insecurity about their future employability, and also reduces the labour unions’ bargaining powers. The book also contains very useful case studies of organisations that have been privatised namely Local government and the Gas, Telstra, Job Network, Qantas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria. These case studies outline the offshoring approaches taken by these privatised companies and a thorough analysis of the resultant changes in employment, management and industrial relations. This book is very important for my research because it offers some case studies for references and looks into the effect of outsourcing from an individual, organisational and labour unions’ perspective.
4. Kuobek, Nobert, Stephan Weinert and Kirsten Meyer. “Outsourcing and offshoring strategies of multinational companies”. In Paul J.J. Welfens, Suthiphand Chirathivat, Franz Knipping, eds. EU – ASEAN: Facing Economic Globalisation, pp. 205-222. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2009.
This book article presents different trends and types of offshoring, and uses Porter’s value chain concept to define the products and goods that should be outsourced, based on the type and extend of global sourcing. Case studies from various countries in Europe and Sothern Asia region are also presented. The article argues that an offshore activity matrix linking value chain analysis, Triad model and core competencies can be used in offshoring decision and policy making. I will also use the case studies from other countries discussed in this chapter, for “country-data” comparison purposes in my study. I will use the offshoring decision making mechanisms discussed in this book’s chapter in developing the conceptual framework of my study and making recommendations.
5. Levy, David. “Offshoring in the new global political economy”. Journal of Management Studies, 42, no. 2 (May 2005): 685-693
This journal article aims at contesting the debate that offshoring is a trade where both parties mutually benefit. Levy argues that the wage reduction strategy used by corporates and governments only benefits the employers and contracting companies, but does not add much value to the countries and employees. He adds that offshoring leads to the displacement of employees and also makes it hard for employees to get a pay increase, especially those in high skilled professions. He further argues that offshoring disconnects the bond between geographical location and creation of economic value which leads to a creation of global product markets for specific skills and causes market power imbalance amongst organisations, employees and nations. This study will therefore be very crucial in discussing and supporting my arguments against offshoring.
6. Vashistha, Atul and Avinash Vashistha. The offshore nation. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional, 2006.
This book gives a complete, well-adjusted presentation of the fast evolution of outsourcing and its increasing significance in corporate strategic planning and management. This book offers the top management and corporate leaders a roadmap for decision making process regarding offshoring. The book explores the role of offshoring in business and organizations and provides a blueprint on how it can be incorporated and managed in an organization. The book looks at the concept of outsourcing and presents case studies from various global locations and professions, as well as the impact of offshoring on both the local and global economies and employment shifts. The book argues that, outsourcing is a noble approach for minimising risks and enhancing profits, but most corporates do not use it as an exploitation tool against their employees and suppliers. The theoretical concepts, recommendations and topics discussed in this book will thus highly inform my study, since they are interrelated.
Beaumont, Nicholas and Amrik Sohal. “Outsourcing in Australia”. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 24, no. 7 (2004): 668-700.
Carroll, Archie and Ann Buchholtz. “Ethical issues in the global arena”. In Business and Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management, pp. 299-340. Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2011.
Fairbrother, Peter, Michael Paddon, and Julian Teicher. Privatisation, Globalisation, and Labour: Studies from Australia. Leichhardt: The Federal Press, 2002.
Kuobek, Nobert, Stephan Weinert and Kirsten Meyer. “Outsourcing and offshoring strategies of multinational companies”. In Paul J.J. Welfens, Suthiphand Chirathivat, Franz Knipping, eds. EU – ASEAN: Facing Economic Globalisation, pp. 205-222. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2009.
Levy, David. “Offshoring in the new global political economy”. Journal of Management Studies, 42, no. 2 (May 2005): 685-693.
Vashistha, Atul and Avinash Vashistha. The offshore nation. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Professional, 2006.